• Goal 1: The New Nation

    • The New Nation: Federalist ERA (George Washington & John Adams)
      • George Washington: 1789 – 1797
        • Bill of Rights: First 10 Amendments/ Protected individual rights
          • Significance: Anti-Federalists agreed to ratify the Constitution if a Bill of Rights was added. James Monroe pushed them through and kept the Federalist promise to add them to the Constitution
        • Whiskey Rebellion:
          • Farmers in the Northwest Territories refused to pay federal excise taxes on whiskey. Whiskey was their form of currency and excise taxes hurt their economy.
          • Washington sent Troops
          • Significance: Proof that the New Constitutional Government was strong enough to enforce laws: A strong Federal government had been established that would be able to enforce laws
        • Hamilton’s Economic Plan: Make America economically stable
          • Provisions
            • Take over Revolutionary War State Debt
            • Create a National Bank
            • Excise Taxes (tax on goods transported across state lines)
            • Tariff (tax on imported goods)
          • Opposition
            • Political Parties Form:
              • Anti-Federalists became the Democratic-Republicans
                • Democratic-Republicans:
                  • Thomas Jefferson Leader
                  • Believed in:
                    • weak national government/strong state government
                    • strict interpretation of the Constitution: The federal government could only do things that the Constitution specifically stated
                    • Farmers supported
                  • Federalists:
                    • Alexander Hamilton Leader
                    • Believed in:
                      • Strong National Government
                      • Loose Interpretation of the Constitution: The federal government could use the “elastic clause” to allow Necessary and Proper function of the US as long as it was not ruled Unconstitutional
                    • Thomas Jefferson (Leader of the Democratic-Republicans) opposes the formation of the National Bank because he believed it would favor the merchants and create a nation of trade.
                      • Thomas Jefferson believed the American economy should be built on Agriculture: A nation of small farmers
                    • Neutrality Proclamation
                      • When war broke out between Britain and France, George Washington proclaimed neutrality
                        • Why? US was a young nation that could not afford to become involved in a foreign conflict
                      • Jay’s Treaty:
                        • Treaty between the US and Britain that prevented war because Britain agreed to:
                          • Withdraw troops from US Northwest Territories
                          • Stop inciting Native American’s to attack settlers
                          • Stop Impressment (forcing American’s into military service)
                          • Stop seizing American Ships
                          • Stop violating US Neutrality  
                        • Pickney’s Treaty
                          • Treaty between the US and Spain that gave the US
                            • Free navigation of the Mississippi
                            • Right to Deposit in New Orleans
                          • Device to Remember:
                            • ‘Pickey’ Spanish pickles went down the Mississippi to deposit their goods in New Orleans
                          • Battle of Fallen Timbers
                            • Washington sent the US army to the Northwest Territory (Ohio River Valley) to defeat Native American’s .
                            • Treaty of Greenville:
                              • Ended the Battle of Fallen Timbers
                              • Native American’s forced to cede the Ohio River Valley (Northwest Territory)
                              • Native American’s within the Northwest Territory became a conquered Nation and forced to relocate west of the Mississippi River
                            • Significance:
                              • Native American’s were treated as a conquered Foreign Nation
                              • Major conflict between whites and Native Americans is LAND
                            • Washington’s Farewell Address
                              • Don’t become involved in entangling alliances
                              • Don’t form political parties
                              • Remain Neutral
                            • John Adams (Federalist): 1797-1801
                              • Problems:
                                • Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) elected as vice-president
                                  • Criticized Federalist Policies
                                    • British and French War
                                  • XYZ Affair
                                    • John Adams sent a negotiating party to France to negotiate a treaty to stop the French from seizing US merchant ships
                                    • When party arrived in France, the French demanded bribes before they would negotiate
                                    • Diplomat X, Y, & Z refused to pay bribes and went home
                                    • US began to build a strong navy
                                  • Alien and Sedition Acts
                                    • Passed to stop Democratic-Republican criticism by:
                                      • Alien Act: Limiting immigration – Thomas Jefferson’s political supporters were mostly immigrants
                                      • Sedition Act – made it illegal to speak against the government
                                    • Opposition to Alien and Sedition Acts
                                      • Democratic-Republicans claimed it was unconstitutional because it violated 1st Amendment rights to freedom of speech
                                      • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
                                        • Written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
                                        • Argued that Alien and sedition acts were unconstitutional
                                        • Introduced Doctrine of Nullification – states had the right to nullify a law they viewed as unconstitutional
                                      • Election of 1800
                                        • Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) defeated John Adams (Federalist)
                                          • Thomas Jefferson
                                            • For the Common Man
                                            • For agricultural development of America
                                          • John Adams
                                            • For rich and elite
                                            • For development of a market economy based on trade
                                          • Democratic-Republicans win a majority in Congress and take the White House
                                          • Significance:
                                            • First peaceful transfer of political power from one party to another.
                                            • End of the Federalist Era
                                          • Thomas Jefferson
                                            • Judiciary Act of 1801
                                              • Passed by John Adams before he left office
                                              • Increased the number of Federalist Judges
                                              • Nicknamed “Midnight Judges”
                                              • Purpose =
                                                • continue the Federalist Legacy by the Federalists controlling the Judicial Branch of Government
                                              • Effect:
                                                • Marbury v. Madison
                                                  • When Jefferson became president, he refused to appoint Federalist judges
                                                  • Appointees sued for their position
                                                • Significance of Marbury v Madison
                                                  • Supreme Court established the power of Judicial Review
                                                    • Supreme Court can declare a law or act unconstitutional
                                                  • Louisiana Purchase
                                                    • Jefferson wanted to buy New Orleans from France to control port of New Orleans
                                                    • When approached, France offered to sell entire Louisiana Territory
                                                    • Jefferson’s Problem with purchase
                                                      • Thomas Jefferson had a strict interpretation of the Constitution
                                                      • Nothing in Constitution about purchasing land
                                                      • Used Elastic Clause to purchase land from France
                                                    • Effect:
                                                      • Doubled the size of the U.S.
                                                    • Significance
                                                      • Jefferson went against his own political beliefs when he bought Louisiana
                                                      • First major purchase of land from another country
                                                    • Lewis and Clark Expedition
                                                      • Purpose
                                                        • Map and explore the Louisiana Territory
                                                        • Sacagawea = Indian guide
                                                        • Primary Purpose was to find the Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean
                                                      • Embargo Act of 1807
                                                        • Britain and France at War Problems
                                                          • Impressing US citizens into service
                                                          • Seizing US ships
                                                          • Violated “Freedom of Seas”
                                                          • Jefferson continued policy of Neutrality
                                                        • Effect:
                                                          • Stopped trade with all nations
                                                          • Hurt New England Merchants because the embargo stopped them from selling goods
                                                        • James Madison
                                                          • Foreign Conflict:
                                                            • Causes of War of 1812
                                                              • Impressment: British impressing US citizens into military service
                                                              • Seizing ships
                                                              • War Hawks in Congress
                                                                • John C. Calhoun and other senators wanted war with Britain because they wanted to expand US territory into Canada
                                                              • Freedom of Seas
                                                                • British had blockaded the US coast and prevented merchant ships from leaving US ports
                                                                • US believed that no country had the right to control the seas and that every country had the right to sail their ships were they wanted to
                                                              • Significant Events during War of 1812
                                                                • British invaded the US and burned White House
                                                                • Battle of Tippiecanoe
                                                                  • Tecumseh – Native American Leader
                                                                    • Attempted to unite all Native American’s in a confederacy to fight against white westward expansion
                                                                    • He fought with the British against the American government because the US government had repeatedly lied to Native Americans and taken their land in the Northwest Territory
                                                                    • Tecumseh was killed during battle
                                                                  • William Henry Harrison – US leader
                                                                    • Fought against Tecumseh and landed an American victory
                                                                    • Became a war hero
                                                                  • Battle of the Great Lakes
                                                                    • Oliver Hazzard Perry – Victorious Navy commander who fought against the British Navy war machine
                                                                  • Battle of Horseshoe Bend
                                                                    • Andrew Jackson victory and hero
                                                                  • Treaty of Ghent
                                                                    • Ended War of 1812
                                                                    • Land returned to the borders present before the war
                                                                  • Battle of New Orleans
                                                                    • Fought after the Treaty of Ghent was signed
                                                                    • Andrew Jackson victory and becomes a war hero
                                                                    • Significance
                                                                      • Raised the spirit of Nationalism because American’s believed they had defeated the British
                                                                    • The Hartford Convention
                                                                      • Federalist Party was against the War of 1812
                                                                      • Secret meeting of the Federalists to discuss Constitutional Amendments that would limit Democratic-Republican power
                                                                      • After the Battle of New Orleans, American people viewed the Federalist Party as traitors
                                                                      • Significance
                                                                        • Beginning of the end of the Federalist Party
                                                                        • After Hartford Convention, Federalists could not get elected to office
                                                                      • Significance of the War of 1812
                                                                        • Called “Second War for Independence” because US gained economic independence from Britain

     

     


     

    Goal 2: Nationalism, Sectionalism and Reform

    • Nationalism in Government
      • James Monore (1817 – 1825)
        • Era of Good Feelings (Nationalism)
          • America only had one political party: Democratic-Republicans
          • Era of political unity
            • Evidence – entire country supported protective tariff
          • Vote expanded
            • Property requirement for voting was removed
            • Poor whites who did not own land could vote (tenant farmers & apprentices)
          • American Plan (Nationalism)
            • Proposed by Henry Clay
            • Purpose
              • Make America economically stable
            • Plan
              • Protective Tariff
                • Allow American industry to grow
              • Internal Improvements
                • Roads
                • Canals
                • Bridges
              • Create the Second National Bank
              • Significance
                • Strengthened US industry
                • Connected eastern and western markets by building roads and canals west
                • Would lead to increased sectionalism because the south believed the American Plan benefited the North at the south’s expense
                  • Protective tariff
                    • allowed northern industry to grow
                    • Hurt South because they traded with Europe
                  • Judicial Nationalism
                    • Gibbons v Ogden
                      • National supremacy in the power to regulate interstate trade
                    • McCullough v Maryland
                      • National supremacy in the power to tax
                      • State’s cannot tax the federal government
                    • Foreign Policy Nationalism
                      • Adams-Onis Treaty
                        • Spain ceded Florida to US
                      • Monroe Doctrine
                        • Warned European nations to stay out of the western hemisphere (north and south America)
                        • US would not allow Europeans to create new colonies in the western hemisphere
                      • Nationalism in Art and Literature
                        • Art
                          • Hudson River School of Art
                            • Scenes of American nature
                            • Viewed American nature superior to European

     

     

    • Literature
      • Noah Webster
        • First American Dictionary
        • Standardized American Language: “English language to American language”
      • James Fennimore Cooper
        • “The Longstocking Tales”, “The Last of the Mohicians”, and “The Sketchbook”
        • Focused writing on American frontier and Native Americans
      • Washington Irving
        • “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”
        • Focused writing on American folk tales and legends
      • Alex de Tocqueville
        • “Democracy in America”
        • Frenchman that praised America’s political system based on democracy
          • Called US a land of opportunity where most of the rich men were formerly poor
        • Criticized American prison system and called for reform because in a land of democracy, prisoners were treated harshly and without democracy
      • Edgar Allen Poe
        • 1st American Mystery
        • Called on American writers to focus on creating a unique American body of literature
      • Nathaniel Hawthorn
        • “The Scarlet Letter”
        • Wrote about American Puritan life
      • Reform
        • The Second Great Awakening
          • Religious movement that argued that it was the responsibility of the individual to seek salvation
          • True reform of society would only happen through spiritual rebirth
        • Abolitionist Movement
          • End Slavery
            • Problems
              • Cotton Gin
                • Institutionalized Slavery In the South
                  • Created a need for a cheap labor source because the cotton gin increased the production of cotton
                • Sectional Differences
                  • North Became Industrial and did not need slave labor
                    • Viewed slavery as an ill of society
                  • South became agricultural and needed slave labor as a cheap labor source
                    • Viewed slavery as a “Necessary Evil”
                  • Nat Turner’s Rebellion
                    • Led a slave rebellion in Virginia
                    • Killed white plantation owners
                    • Significance
                      • Caused southerners to fear their slaves and pass Black Codes to restrict their movement
                    • Quakers
                      • First religious group to oppose slavery
                      • Assisted on Underground Railroad by hiding and transporting slaves
                    • Underground Railroad
                      • Harriett Tubman = conductor
                      • Secretly transported slaves to freedom in the north
                    • William Lloyd Garrison
                      • Created “The Liberator
                        • Newspaper that worked toward the abolition of slavery
                      • Frederick Douglas
                        • Escaped slave
                        • Prominent abolitionist speaker
                      • Harriet Beecher Stowe
                        • “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
                          • Realist Novel that showed the horrors of slavery
                          • Caused Northerners to support the Abolitionist Movement
                        • When Lincoln met her he stated, “So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war (Civil War)”
                      • Grimkie Sisters
                        • Southern sisters who gave passionate anti-slaver speeches
                      • Sojourner Truth
                        • Women’s rights and abolitionist leader
                        • “Ain’t I a woman” speech
                      • John Brown
                        • John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry
                          • Tried to steal weapons from a federal arsenal to start a slave revolt
                          • Increased fear of slaves in the south
                        • Transcendentalism
                          • Nationalist literary movement that focused on nature, the individual, and self-reliance
                          • Leaders
                            • Ralph Waldo Emerson
                              • focused writings on nature and self-reliance
                            • Henry David Thoreau
                              • Wrote: “Civil Disobedience
                                • Introduced idea of peaceful protests against unjust laws
                                • Martin Luther King Jr. and Gandhi would use to fight civil rights violations
                              • Women’s Suffrage Movement
                                • Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
                                  • Meeting that called on women to gain the right to vote (suffrage)
                                  • Declaration of Rights and Sentiments issued
                                    • Declaration of women’s rights and called for women’s suffrage (vote)
                                    • Patterned after the Declaration of Independence: compared the women’s struggle to gain vote with the struggle of the 13 colonies to gain independence from Britain
                                  • Leaders
                                    • Abigail Adams
                                      • 1st women’s rights leader
                                      • Wrote letter to husband during the Constitutional Convention asking him to “Remember the ladies” (Remember to grant them the right to vote and participate in government)
                                    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
                                    • Susan B. Anthony
                                    • Sojourner Truth
                                  • Mental Hospital Reform
                                    • Alex de Tocqueville
                                      • In “American Democracy” he called for reform of the prison system because prisoners were treated in an undemocratic manner: cruel and harsh treatment
                                    • Dorothea Dix
                                      • After a tour of a prison she found that prisoners and the mentally ill were mixed together and received harsh – cruel treatment.
                                      • Called for prison reform and the creation of mental hospitals
                                    • Temperance Movement
                                      • Ban alcohol in society
                                      • Viewed as an ill of society because a “drunk” could not support his family
                                    • Educational Reform
                                      • Horace Mann
                                        • Father of American Public School Education
                                        • Argued that states should create and support schools that all children could attend
                                      • Significance
                                        • American society believed that it was the responsibility of the individual to promote reform of public institutions
                                        • Church became a tool for the reform movement by calling on all individuals to make it their moral responsibility to reform society: Abolition Movement/ Temperance Movement
                                      • Sectionalism Develops
                                        • States Rights and Westward Expansion of Slavery = Two Major Sectional Issues
                                        • Missouri Compromise of 1820 (Sectionalism during Monroe)
                                          • Negotiated by Henry Clay “The Great Compromiser”
                                          • Missouri = Slave
                                          • Maine = Free
                                            • 36° - 30’ N Latitude Line through the Louisiana Purchase Territory marked the boundary between Free and Slave States
                                              • All states above would be free
                                              • All states below would be slave
                                            • Election of 1824
                                              • John Q. Adams v Andrew Jackson
                                              • Tie: Went to House of Representatives
                                                • Andrew Jackson won the majority of the popular vote
                                                • Henry Clay = “Swing Vote”: His vote could decide the election
                                              • John Q. Adams made a deal with Henry Clay to give him his “Swing Vote” in exchange for support of:
                                                • Henry Clay’s American system and appointment as Secretary of State
                                              • Henry Clay supported John Q. Adams
                                              • Corrupt Bargain:
                                                • Andrew Jackson viewed the deal between John Q. Adams and Henry Clay as a “Corrupt Bargain” that stole the election from him and gave it to John Q. Adams.
                                              • Significance
                                                • End of the Era of Good Feelings because Jacksonian Democrats develop as political opposition
                                              • Election of 1828
                                                • Andrew Jackson v John Q. Adams
                                                • Jackson wins the Common Man’s Vote
                                                  • Causes = Suffrage expanded to include All White Males
                                                • Andrew Jackson (1829-1837)
                                                  • Administration
                                                    • becomes 1st Western President
                                                    • Spoils System
                                                      • gave political supporters government jobs in exchange for votes
                                                      • Many not qualified for positions
                                                    • Kitchen Cabinet – group of unofficial advisors to the president
                                                  • Significant Events
                                                    • Native Americans
                                                      • Indian Removal Act of 1830
                                                        • Forced removal of Five Civilized Tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River
                                                        • Promoted Manifest Destiny because it encouraged white westward expansion
                                                      • Worchester v Georgia
                                                        • Cherokee sued for loss of their lands
                                                        • John Marshall (Supreme Court) ruled that US government could not take land
                                                        • Jackson’s Response to decision
                                                          • Stated “John Marshal had made his decision, now let him uphold it”
                                                          • Forced removal of Five Civilized Tribes to Oklahoma Territory
                                                          • Trail of Tears
                                                            • US military removed Five Civilized Tribes from their land and forced marched them to Indian Country in Oklahoma Territory in the dead of winter. Thousands died
                                                          • Bank Wars
                                                            • Andrew Jackson viewed the Bank as a tool of the elite (wealthy business owners and Northern Merchants)
                                                            • To economically “Kill the National Bank”, Jackson created “Pet Banks” (State Banks that received deposits from the national government.) Without deposits from the national government, the National Bank would “DIE”
                                                            • Jackson Vetoed the Re-charter of the National Bank
                                                              • Final step in “Killing” the National Bank
                                                            • Effects of the Bank Wars
                                                              • No National Bank to stabilize Money Supply
                                                              • Pet Banks printed money and loaned money recklessly and this led to
                                                                • “Panic of 1837”
                                                                  • Economic Recession during Van Buren’s Administration (Jackson’s Replacement)
                                                                • South Carolina Nullification Crisis
                                                                  • Cause = Protective Tariffs (Tariff of 1828 & 1832)
                                                                    • Tariff of 1828 protected Northern Industry at the expense of the southern economy.
                                                                      • South depended on foreign trade for sales of cotton and they received most of their goods from Europe
                                                                    • South Carolina was against protective tariffs
                                                                      • Called the Tariff of 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” because it helped the north and hurt the south
                                                                    • South Carolina Exposition and Protest
                                                                      • Written by John C. Calhoun
                                                                      • Challenged US authority
                                                                        • Used “Doctrine of Nullification” on the Tariff issue
                                                                      • Argued that states can nullify a federal law and even secede (leave) the Union if they believed the law was unjust
                                                                    • South Carolina “Nullified” the Tariffs because they hurt their economy
                                                                    • Jackson’s Response
                                                                      • Force Bill – Congress passed law that gave president authority to send Federal Troops to enforce law
                                                                    • Compromise Reached
                                                                      • Henry Clay “The Great Compromiser”
                                                                      • Compromise Tariff of 1833
                                                                        • Tariffs lowered gradually
                                                                        • South Carolina agreed to Compromise
                                                                      • Significance
                                                                        • The south opposed the tariffs because it forced southerners to buy more expensive northern goods
                                                                        • South exported cotton and many of the countries responded by placing high protective tariffs of their own on American goods imported into their country
                                                                      • Westward Expansion causes Sectionalism over the Expansion of Slavery and State’s Rights
                                                                        • Texas War for Independence
                                                                          • Texas = Mexican territory
                                                                          • Mexico invited US citizens to Texas by giving them “free land”
                                                                          • Stephen Austin
                                                                            • led American settlers to Texas
                                                                            • “Father of Texas”
                                                                            • Became a Empressario
                                                                              • Sold land
                                                                              • Santa Anna (Mexican leader) put him in prison
                                                                            • Mexico demanded that settlers follow Mexican law
                                                                              • No slavery: Learn Spanish: Become Catholic
                                                                              • Significance:
                                                                                • caused conflict between Texans and Mexican government
                                                                                • Texans brought slaves to Texas (they were from the south: slavery = cheap labor source)
                                                                              • Texas declares Independence
                                                                              • Texas War for Independence Major Highlights
                                                                                • The Alamo
                                                                                  • Santa Anna (Mexican Leader) killed all Texans at fort
                                                                                    • Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie die defending fort
                                                                                    • No prisoners are taken
                                                                                  • “Remember the Alamo” became the rally cry for Texas War for Independence
                                                                                • Battle of San Jacinto
                                                                                  • Last major battle
                                                                                  • Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna and forced him to give Texas Independence
                                                                                • Treaty of Velasco
                                                                                  • Texas Independence from Mexico
                                                                                  • Ended the Texas War for Independence
                                                                                • Texas applied for Statehood to the US
                                                                                  • US = NO because the North feared the admission of another slave state to the Union
                                                                                  • Texas became an independent Republic
                                                                                • Admitted as a state by Taylor before he left office
                                                                              • James K. Polk (1845 – 1849)
                                                                                • Manifest Destiny President
                                                                                  • Manifest Destiny
                                                                                    • Belief that it was God’s will for the U.S. to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific
                                                                                  • Election of 1844
                                                                                    • “54° - 40’ or FIGHT!”
                                                                                      • Rally cry for Manifest Destiny
                                                                                      • Polk promised that if he was elected that the US would go to war against Britain to extend Oregon Territory to 54° - 40’N Latitude
                                                                                    • Promised to annex Texas and by California from Mexico
                                                                                    • Both North and South supported Westward Expansion
                                                                                  • Highlights of Administration
                                                                                    • Manifest Destiny
                                                                                      • Expanded US to the Pacific Ocean
                                                                                    • Wilmot Proviso
                                                                                      • Proposal to ban the extension of slavery into territories gained from Mexico
                                                                                      • Failed to pass
                                                                                    • Mexican-American War
                                                                                      • Cause
                                                                                        • “Border Dispute” over the southern boundary of Texas
                                                                                          • Polk said the Rio Grande was the border
                                                                                          • Santa Anna said the Nueces River was the boundary (Farther north than the Rio Grande)
                                                                                        • Manifest Destiny
                                                                                          • Polk wanted Mexican Territory
                                                                                        • Events
                                                                                          • General Zachary Taylor sent to disputed territory
                                                                                            • Polk sends General Zachary Taylor to the Texas Border to “Pick a Fight”
                                                                                            • Santa Anna’s Troops fired on Taylor’s forces
                                                                                            • Congress declared War
                                                                                          • Bear Flag Revolt
                                                                                            • Californians revolt against Mexico
                                                                                          • Mexico City
                                                                                            • General Winfield Scott marched troops into Mexico City and forced surrender
                                                                                          • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
                                                                                            • Ended Mexican-American War
                                                                                            • US gained Mexican Cession Territories: California, New Mexico & Utah
                                                                                          • Significance
                                                                                            • Manifest Destiny accomplished
                                                                                              • US stretched from Atlantic to Pacific
                                                                                            • Mexican – American relations strained
                                                                                              • Mexico harbored resentment against US for taking Mexican Cession Territory
                                                                                              • US became dominate power in North America
                                                                                            • Gadsden Purchase (1853)
                                                                                              • Completed US boundaries
                                                                                              • Bought from Mexico for $10 million to build a southern transcontinental railroad

     

     

    Goal 3: Civil War

    • Road to the Civil War
      • Sectionalism
        • Central Issues
          • Westward Expansion of Slavery
          • State’s Rights
        • Webster-Hayne Debates (1830)
          • Senator Daniel Webster v Robert Hayne
          • Issue = State’s Rights
            • Can a state nullify a federal law or leave the US
          • Webster argued that no state can leave the Union
          • Famous Quote by Daniel Webster “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.”
            • Example of Nationalism because Constitution joined the states together forever
          • Free-Soil Party Forms (1848)
            • Against the extension of slavery into the western territories because slavery would drive down wages earned by white workers who went west
            • Motto
              • "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men".
            • Compromise of 1850
              • California admitted as a Free State
              • Fugitive Slave Act
                • Required free states to help capture and return escaped slaves
              • Slave Trade abolished in Washington D.C.
              • New states would use Popular Sovereignty to decide slavery issue
              • Significance
                • South believed the compromise illustrated a threat to their way of life
              • Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
                • Harriett Beecher Stowe
                • Effect:
                  • Increased Abolition Movement popularity
                  • Increased sectionalism over the westward expansion of slavery
                • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
                  • Popular Sovereignty (people vote) to decide slavery issue in Kansas and Nebraska Territory
                  • Effect
                    • Bleeding Kansas
                      • Quasi Civil War in the West over the slavery issue
                      • Violence between pro-slavers and Free-soilers (no slavery)
                    • Republican Party Formed (1854)
                      • Combined Whigs and Northern Democrats
                      • Opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act
                      • Opposed to the Westward Expansion of Slavery
                      • Viewed by south as an Abolitionist Party
                    • Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)
                      • Dred Scott was taken into free state: sued for his freedom
                      • Supreme Court Ruled that
                        • Slaves were property
                        • Slaves could not sue
                      • Decision reversed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 because
                        • slave owners could take their slaves north of the 36° - 30’ N line without fear of losing them to freedom
                        • Congress had no power to deny slavery in any territory
                      • Lincoln – Douglas Debates (1858)
                        • Debate over the issue of slavery
                        • Established Lincoln as an abolitionist senator and a strong Republican candidate
                        • Freeport Doctrine
                          • Stephen Douglas
                          • Don’t Make Laws to support slavery, you won’t have slavery
                        • John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry (1859)
                          • Arm the slaves to cause a slave revolt
                          • Caused the south to fear slaves and prepare for war
                        • Election of 1860
                          • Conflict
                            • South Carolina threatened secession if Lincoln elected
                          • Abraham Lincoln becomes the first Republican elected as President
                          • South Carolina seceded from Union
                            • Reason
                              • Republicans (abolitionist party) gained control of government
                              • Viewed Lincoln as an abolitionist president who would abolish slavery
                              • Wanted to protect state sovereignty (State’s Rights)
                            • Lincoln’s Response:
                              • Secession is illegal
                                • Reason
                                  • Constitution is collective will of people and cannot be destroyed by state legislatures
                                  • Once ratified by the states, the states surrendered their power to the federal government
                                • Famous Quote
                                  • “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved – I do not expect the house to fall – but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other.” Abraham Lincoln
                                    • Issue = SLAVERY
                                  • Summary of Causes
                                    • Long Term Causes
                                      • Westward Expansion of Slavery
                                      • State’s Rights
                                      • Abolitionist Movement
                                    • Short Term Causes
                                      • Fugitive Slave Act
                                      • Uncle Tom’s Cabin
                                      • Kansas-Nebraska Act
                                      • Dred – Scott Decision
                                      • John Brown’s Raid
                                      • Election of 1860
                                    • Civil War Begins
                                      • Lincoln’s Main Goal when Civil War Started
                                        • Preserve the Union
                                      • Fort Sumter
                                        • First conflict of the Civil War
                                        • Lincoln sent troops to re-supply troops stationed at Fort Sumter South Carolina
                                        • South Carolina fired on US troops
                                        • Lincoln called for volunteers to defend the Union
                                        • Struggles to find Generals
                                          • McClellan, Hooker, Burnside U Meade didn’t like to attack
                                        • Battle Plans
                                          • North (Union: Abraham Lincoln = President)
                                            • Anaconda Plan
                                              • Offensive Three Part Plan
                                                • Blockade Southern Ports
                                                • Split south in two by capturing the Mississippi River
                                                • Capture Richmond (Confederate Capital)
                                              • South (Confederate States of America: Jefferson Davis = President)
                                                • Defensive Plan
                                                • Defend southern boundaries and wait for European recognition
                                              • Advantages
                                                • North
                                                  • More Industry
                                                  • Higher Population
                                                  • More Capital
                                                  • General Grant
                                                    • Policy of Total War: Attack and force the south to surrender unconditionally
                                                  • South
                                                    • Fighting for Home
                                                    • Better Generals
                                                      • General Lee
                                                      • Stonewall Jackson
                                                    • Key Battles & Events
                                                      • Copperheads
                                                        • Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War
                                                      • First Battle of Bull Run
                                                        • Confederate Victory
                                                        • Showed that the war would not be short
                                                      • Income Taxes instituted in North
                                                        • First time federal government used income taxes to pay for the war
                                                        • Before 1860, sale of land and tariffs were used to fund the federal government
                                                      • Antietam
                                                        • Bloodiest single day of the war
                                                      • Emancipation Proclamation
                                                        • Military strategy
                                                        • Lincoln freed all slaves in the south to cause a slave uprising
                                                        • Encouraged blacks to serve in the Union army
                                                        • Paved the way for the 13th Amendment
                                                      • Conscription instituted in North
                                                        • First time civilians were drafted into military service
                                                        • Wealthy could buy way out
                                                      • Vicksburg
                                                        • Turning point in the west
                                                        • General Grant hero and takes command of the Union Army
                                                        • Union took control of the Mississippi River and cut the south in two
                                                      • Draft Riots in the North
                                                        • Poor immigrants rioted in New York to protest the draft
                                                          • Rich could send replacements or buy their way out
                                                        • Gettysburg
                                                          • Turning point in the east
                                                          • Bloodiest Battle
                                                          • Union Victory
                                                          • Caused the south to give-up hope of launching another invasion into the north because of their huge losses of lives during the battle
                                                        • Gettysburg Address
                                                          • Lincoln’s speech to unify the nation & dedicate a cemetery
                                                          • Read and reflect on the following:
                                                            • “Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. ….. that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government: of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”             Abraham Lincoln
                                                          • Capture of Atlanta
                                                            • General Sherman captures and burns Atlanta
                                                            • Significance: Confederate Capital and helps Lincoln win re-election in 1864
                                                          • Sherman’s march to the Sea
                                                            • General Sherman Marches his army across the south to the sea and burns everything in their path
                                                            • Purpose: Make south pay for war and make them remember the strength of the Union Army
                                                          • Appomattox Courthouse
                                                            • General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant
                                                            • End of the Civil War
                                                          • Issues the Civil War Resolved
                                                            • Confirmed the power of the National Government and made cession illegal
                                                            • Federal Government is supreme over the states
                                                            • No state can disobey the federal government
                                                          • Federal Government expanded powers
                                                            • Income Tax
                                                            • Conscription
                                                          • Reconstruction (1865-1877)
                                                            • Plans for Reconstruction
                                                              • Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan
                                                                • Admit states back into the Union when 10% of population swore oath of allegiance
                                                                • Significance:
                                                                  • Lenient and forgiving plan
                                                                • Lincoln’s Assassination by John Wilkes Booth
                                                                  • Stopped plan to peacefully reunite the Union with the Confederacy
                                                                • Andrew Johnson
                                                                  • Tried to continue Lincoln’s Plan
                                                                • Radical Republican Plan
                                                                  • Congress controls Reconstruction
                                                                  • Make the south pay for the Civil War
                                                                • 13th Amendment (1865)
                                                                  • Abolished Slavery in the US
                                                                • Problems with Reconstruction
                                                                  • Opposition to the Southern status quo:
                                                                    • Scalawags
                                                                      • White Southerners who joined the Republican Party and supported Reconstruction
                                                                    • Carpetbaggers
                                                                      • Northern industrialists who moved to the south to get rich quick
                                                                    • Freedmen Voters
                                                                      • Voted Republican
                                                                      • Held offices throughout the south
                                                                      • 16 elected to Congress
                                                                    • Southern defiance (Resistance) to Reconstruction infuriated Radical Republicans
                                                                      • Southern governments Instituted and supported
                                                                        • black codes (restricted Freedmen’s rights)
                                                                        • Jim Crow Laws – legal segregation of the black and white races
                                                                        • Poll taxes – make voters pay a tax to vote. Kept Freedmen from voting because they couldn’t pay tax
                                                                        • Literacy Tests – make potential voters pass a test to vote
                                                                        • Grandfather Clause – allowed poor whites who could not pay taxes or pass a literacy test to vote
                                                                        • KKK
                                                                          • terrorist organization
                                                                            • Tactics
                                                                              • Beatings
                                                                              • Murders/Lynching
                                                                              • Destroy property
                                                                            • prevent Freedmen from exercising their right to vote
                                                                            • Force white Republicans who supported Reconstruction out of the south
                                                                            • Restore white supremacy
                                                                          • Significance
                                                                            • Actions defied the 13th Amendment because the southern governments restricted Freedmen’s Rights
                                                                          • Sharecropping and Tenant Farming Replace Slavery
                                                                            • Sharecropping
                                                                              • Land owners allow free blacks and poor whites to farm land in return for portion of crop
                                                                            • Tenant Farming
                                                                              • Pay rent to farm land
                                                                            • Assistance for Freedmen
                                                                              • Freedmen’s Bureau
                                                                                • Provide food, clothing, medical and education for newly freed blacks and poor whites
                                                                              • Andrew Johnson (1865-1868) v Radical Republicans for the Control of Reconstruction
                                                                                • Civil Rights Act of 1866
                                                                                  • Passed to stop southern resistance to Reconstruction and protect Freedmen’s Rights
                                                                                  • Johnson vetoed but Radical Republicans passed
                                                                                • Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
                                                                                  • Purpose = stop southern defiance and protect Freedmen’s Rights
                                                                                  • Create five military districts in the south
                                                                                  • Congress overseas Reconstruction
                                                                                  • Johnson vetoed: Increased conflict between Johnson and Radical Republicans
                                                                                  • Radical Republicans overrode his veto
                                                                                • Impeachment
                                                                                  • Tenure in Office Act
                                                                                    • Law passed by Radical Republicans to prevent Andrew Johnson from firing cabinet members without Congressional permission
                                                                                    • Johnson could not fire Radical Republicans serving on his cabinet
                                                                                  • Johnson fired Edwin Stanton and Impeachment
                                                                                    • Radical Republican
                                                                                    • Act violated Tenure in Office Act
                                                                                    • Congress moved to Impeach Johnson
                                                                                    • Senate did not convict Johnson (saved by one vote)
                                                                                      • Significance of decision
                                                                                        • Senate felt that if the president was impeached because of political reasons, the balance of powers that existed between Congress and the president would be destroyed

     

    • 14th Amendment (1868)
      • All people regardless of race will be treated equally under the law (equal protection clause)
      • Passed to stop continued southern resistance of Reconstruction
    • Ulysses S Grant (1869-1877)
      • 15th Amendment (1870)
        • Gave Freedmen the right to vote
        • No one can be denied the right to vote based on your race
      • Surrounded by Corruption during his administration
        • Whiskey Ring
          • Whiskey distillers and tax agents skimmed of tax money
        • Credit Mobiler Scandal
          • Union – Pacific Railroad set up a dummy company to skim land-grant money and make investors rich
        • Compromise of 1877
          • End of Reconstruction
          • Election of 1867 ended in a tie
          • Southern states agreed to allow Hayes to become president in return for “Home Rule” and withdrawal of federal troops from the south
          • Significance
            • Ended Federal protection of Freedmen
            • South instituted laws to limit blacks rights in the south
              • Jim Crow Laws
              • Poll Taxes
              • Literacy Tests
            • Plessy v Ferguson
              • Separate but Equal doctrine
              • Upheld Jim Crow Laws in the South
              • Segregation of the races

     

     

     

     

    Goal 4: The Great West

    • People Who Went West
      • LAND: Soddies – Great Plains Farmers
      • WEALTH:
        • GOLD: 49ers – Gold Miners who went to California in 1849 to get rich
        • Comstock Lode
          • Nevada: Largest silver strike
        • RELIGION: Mormons – Went to Utah to escape religious persecution
          • Joseph Smith
            • Founder
            • Killed by a mob in Illinois because of his belief in polygamy
          • Brigham Young – led the Mormons to Salt Lake City Utah
        • FREEDOM:
          • Exodusters – African Americans who left the south in search of freedom in the west
          • Women – political freedom and the right to vote
        • Why People Went West
          • Push Factors: Things that pushed people out of the East and into the West
            • Lack of land to purchase – people went west for farmland
              • Soddies
            • Overpopulation
            • Religious persecution
              • Mormons
            • Pull Factors: Things that pulled people to the West
              • Open Range
                • Cowboys and stories of the wild west
              • Homestead Act of 1862
                • 160 Acres of free farmland to anyone who agreed to live on it for five years and improve the land
              • Oklahoma Giveaway
                • Contest for free land in Indian Territory
                • Sooners gained name because they “jumped the gun”
              • Morrill Land Grant Act
                • Set aside government land to build agricultural colleges
              • Transcontinental Railroad
                • Union Pacific and the Central Pacific joined together at Promontory Point, Utah with a golden spike
                • Chinese workers worked for the Central Pacific and Irish workers worked for the Union Pacific
                • Had the greatest impact on the settlement of the west because
                  • It was quick and cheap transportation to the west
                  • It killed the Buffalo
                    • This ended traditional Native American Life on the Great Plains because their main food source was gone
                    • Cheap fares allowed hunters to go west on hunting expeditions and kill buffalo for sport
                  • Farming in the West
                    • Climatic problems of the west
                      • Hot – dry climate that is prone to drought
                      • Must grow drought tolerant crops such as oats and grains
                    • Technology that settled the west
                      • Steel Plow
                        • John Deere: Cut deep sod on the Great Plains
                      • Mechanical Reaper
                        • Cyrus McCormick: Allowed the mass harvesting of grain
                      • Refrigerator Car
                        • Fresh meat from the Great Plains could be transported to the east without spoiling
                      • Barbed Wire
                        • Joseph Glidden: Fenced in the Open Range
                        • Significance:
                          • When farmers began to fence in their land, this led to Range Wars between cattle ranchers and farmers. Farmers and ranchers would fight gun battles over water and grazing lands.
                          • The buffalo grass of the Great Plains that held the soil in place began to be tilled up and exposed the soil to wind erosion
                        • Financial Problems of the Western Farmers
                          • Technological Debt
                            • To farm land out west, farmers had to purchase new technology: steel plow, mechanical reaper and barbed wire
                          • Railroads
                            • Overcharging for farmers to ship goods
                            • Long haul cheaper than short haul
                            • Had to pay bribes to make sure goods were delivered before they spoiled
                          • Overproduction
                            • New technology allowed farmers to produce more than they could sell
                            • This drove prices of produce down and put farmers in more debt
                          • Farmers try to solve their financial problems
                            • The Grange
                              • Farmer social – political organization
                              • Created to educate farmers and assist in fighting the abuses of railroad
                            • The Populist Party
                              • “The People’s Party”
                              • Formed out of the Grange
                              • Demanded reform in money, transportation and government
                              • Reform Party that supported (Omaha Platform)
                                • Bimetallism – money backed by gold and silver (farmers believed that an increase in the money supply would solve their financial problems)
                                • government regulation of railroad
                                • 8 hour workday
                                • secret ballots and direct election of senators
                              • Significance:
                                • Political reforms proposed by the Populists will be passed by the Progressives
                                • Introduces the idea that it is the government’s responsibility to regulate business to prevent abuses
                              • Election of 1896
                                • Issues =
                                  • Bimetallism v Gold Standard
                                  • Big Business v Government Regulation
                                • William Jennings Bryan (Populist) v William McKinley (Republican)
                                • William Jennings Bryan: Populist Party Candidate
                                  • Cross of Gold Speech
                                    • “You will not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold”
                                  • Lost the election and the Populist Party Died
                                • Significance:
                                  • The Populist Campaign in the Election of 1896 brought about the idea for the need to reform American society, business and politics
                                  • This election is often marked as the beginning of the Progressive Movement
                                • Indian Wars
                                  • Cause = LAND
                                    • Number one conflict between whites who moved west and Native Americans
                                  • Great Plains Indians
                                    • People who were displaced by white settlers
                                    • Depended on buffalo for survival and open range for traditional nomadic lifestyle
                                  • Buffalo Soldiers
                                    • African Americans who fought against Indian tribes in the west
                                    • Named by the Great Plains Indians because their hair
                                  • The Massacre at Sand Creek
                                    • First major conflict between whites and Indians
                                    • Began Indian Wars
                                    • Union troops killed men, women and children
                                  • The Battle of Little Big Horn
                                    • Only Native American victory
                                    • US Army 7th Calvary and General George Custer were killed (Custer’s Last Stand)
                                  • Battle of Wounded Knee
                                    • Last major battle of the Indian Wars
                                    • Traditional Native American Life ended
                                    • Native Americans forced to live on Reservations
                                  • Forced Assimilation
                                    • Dawes Severalty Act
                                      • Assimilate Native Americans – make them into whites
                                      • How?
                                        • Divide Reservation land into separate family farming plots
                                        • Force the Native Americans to give up traditional life for farming
                                      • Advocate for Native Americans
                                        • Helen Hunt Jackson
                                          • “A Century of Dishonor”
                                            • Argued that the US government had mistreated and lied to Indians by:
                                              • Breaking treaties
                                              • Forcing assimilation

    o    Forcing them to live on reservations