• Reading Standards for Literature 6–12 [RL]

    The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the

    latter providing additional specificity.

    Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:

    Key Ideas and Details

    1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly

    as well as inferences drawn from the text.

    1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as

    well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters

    uncertain.

    1. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the

    course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details;

    provide an objective summary of the text.

    1. Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over

    the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a

    complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

    1. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations)

    develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or

    develop the theme.

    1. Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a

    story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are

    introduced and developed).

    Craft and Structure

    1. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including

    figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices

    on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a

    formal or informal tone).

    1. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative

    and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone,

    including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or

    beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)

    1. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it

    (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as

    mystery, tension, or surprise.

    1. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the

    choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution)

    contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

    1. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature

    from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

    1. Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in

    a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

    1. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums,

    including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux

    Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

    1. Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production

    of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text.

    (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)

    1. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature)
    2. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g.,

    how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws

    on a play by Shakespeare).

    1. Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational

    works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat

    similar themes or topics.

    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

    1. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and

    poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at

    the high end of the range.

    By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and

    poems, at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and

    proficiently.

    1. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems,

    in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high

    end of the range.

     By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and

    poems, at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and

    proficiently.

    Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–12 [RI]

    The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing

    additional specificity.

    Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:

    Key Ideas and Details

    1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly

    as well as inferences drawn from the text.

    1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as

    well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters

    uncertain.

    1. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text,

    including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective

    summary of the text.

    1. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of

    the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis;

    provide an objective summary of the text.

    1. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order

    in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections

    that are drawn between them.

    1. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas,

    or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

    Craft and Structure

    1. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative,

    connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices

    on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a

    newspaper).

    1. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative,

    connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key

    term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).

    1. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular

    sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).

    1. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or

    argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

    1. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses

    rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

    1. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly

    effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the

    text.

    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

    1. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in

    both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

    1. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats

    (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

    1. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the

    reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and

    fallacious reasoning.

    1. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of

    constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions

    and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The

    Federalist, presidential addresses).

    1. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s

    Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s

    “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.

    1. Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of

    historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the

    Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes,

    purposes, and rhetorical features.

    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

    1. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text

    complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

    By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the

    grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

    1. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text

    complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

    By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11–

    CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

    Writing Standards 6–12 [W]

    The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the

    latter providing additional specificity.

    Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:

    Text Types and Purposes

    1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid

    reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

    1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims,

    and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s),

    counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

    1. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing

    out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s

    knowledge level and concerns.

    1. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion,

    and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and

    evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

    1. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms

    and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

    1. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument

    presented.

    1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid

    reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

    1. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s),

    distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that

    logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

    1. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant

    evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner

    that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

    1. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the

    text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons,

    between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

    1. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and

    conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

    1. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument

    presented.

    1. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and

    information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis

    of content.

    1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make

    important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics

    (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

    1. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions,

    concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the

    audience’s knowledge of the topic.

    1. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create

    cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

    1. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the

    topic.

    1. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms

    and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

    1. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the

    information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance

    of the topic).

    1. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and

    information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of

    content.

    1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new

    element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting

    (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding

    comprehension.

    1. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts,

    extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples

    appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.

    1. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text,

    create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

    1. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor,

    simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.

    1. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and

    conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

    1. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information

    or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

    Writing Standards 6–12 [W]

    Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:

    Text Types and Purposes (continued)

    1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique,

    well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation,

    establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or

    characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.

    1. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple

    plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

    1. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to

    create a coherent whole.

    1. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid

    picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.

    1. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed,

    or resolved over the course of the narrative.

    1. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique,

    well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

    1. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its

    significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator

    and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.

    1. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple

    plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

    1. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to

    create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense

    of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).

    1. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid

    picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.

    1. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed,

    or resolved over the course of the narrative.

    Production and Distribution of Writing

    1. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are

    appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are

    defined in standards 1–3 above.)

    1. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are

    appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are

    defined in standards 1–3 above.)

    1. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying

    a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and

    audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3

    up to and including grades 9–10 on page 55.)

    1. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying

    a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and

    audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3

    up to and including grades 11–12 on page 55.)

    1. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared

    writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and

    to display information flexibly and dynamically.

    1. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared

    writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

    Research to Build and Present Knowledge

    1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a

    self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when

    appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the

    subject under investigation.

    1. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a

    self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when

    appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the

    subject under investigation.

    1. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using

    advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research

    question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas,

    avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

    1. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using

    advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of

    the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain

    the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a

    standard format for citation.

    Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 47

    Writing Standards 6–12 [W]

    Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:

    Research to Build and Present Knowledge (continued)

    1. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and

    research.

    1. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on

    and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme

    or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by

    Shakespeare]”).

    1. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate

    the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and

    the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious

    reasoning”).

    1. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and

    research.

    1. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of

    eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American

    literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes

    or topics”).

    1. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate

    the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles

    and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and

    dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g.,

    The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).

    Range of Writing

    1. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and

    shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and

    audiences.

    1. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and

    shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and

    audiences.

    Speaking and Listening Standards 6–12 [SL]

    The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the

    latter providing additional specificity.

    Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:

    Comprehension and Collaboration

    1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in

    groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building

    on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study;

    explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other

    research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of

    ideas.

    1. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g.,

    informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear

    goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.

    1. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current

    discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the

    discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

    1. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and

    disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and

    understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning

    presented.

    1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in

    groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, building

    on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

    1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study;

    explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other

    research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

    1. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear

    goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.

    1. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and

    evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify,

    or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.

    1. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence

    made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what

    additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete

    the task.

    1. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g.,

    visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

    1. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,

    visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems,

    evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the

    data.

    1. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying

    any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

    1. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the

    stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

    Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

    1. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such

    that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance,

    and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

    1. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct

    perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing

    perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are

    appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

    1. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive

    elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and

    to add interest.

    1. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive

    elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and

    to add interest.

    1. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English

    when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9–10 Language standards 1 and 3 on pages 54 for

    specific expectations.)

    1. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English

    when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11–12 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 54 for

    specific expectations.)

    Language Standards 6–12 [L]

    The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter

    providing additional specificity.

    Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:

    Conventions of Standard English

    1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when

    writing or speaking.

    1. Use parallel structure.*
    2. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional,

    absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey

    specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

    1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when

    writing or speaking.

    1. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and

    is sometimes contested.

    1. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., MerriamWebster’s

    Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.

    1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation,

    and spelling when writing.

    1. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related

    independent clauses.

    1. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
    2. Spell correctly.
    3. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation,

    and spelling when writing.

    1. Observe hyphenation conventions.
    2. Spell correctly.

    Knowledge of Language

    1. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to

    make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or

    listening.

    1. Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA

    Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

    1. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to

    make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or

    listening.

    1. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as

    needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

    Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

    1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based

    on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s

    position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

    1. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or

    parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).

    1. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,

    thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or

    clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.

    1. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by

    checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

    1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based

    on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

    1. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s

    position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

    1. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or

    parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).

    1. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,

    thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or

    clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.

    1. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by

    checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

    1. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word

    meanings.

    1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their

    role in the text.

    1. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
    2. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word

    meanings.

    1. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in

    the text.

    1. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
    2. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient

    for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level;

    demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or

    phrase important to comprehension or expression.

    1. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient

    for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level;

    demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or

    phrase important to comprehension or expression.

    North Carolina Math 1

    Standards for Mathematical Practice

    1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
    2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively
    3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
    4. Model with mathematics
    5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
    6. Attend to precision.
    7. Look for and make use of structure.
    8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

    North Carolina Math 2

    Standards for Mathematical Practice

    1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
    2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively
    3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
    4. Model with mathematics
    5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
    6. Attend to precision.
    7. Look for and make use of structure.
    8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

    NC Math 3 Draft Standards

    Standards for Mathematical Practice

    1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
    2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively
    3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
    4. Model with mathematics
    5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
    6. Attend to precision.
    7. Look for and make use of structure.
    8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.